CAN JET BLAST REMOVE A BIKINI TOP?

Research Topics# 53

Topic Airside safetyhttps://atrisa.wordpress.com/2019/11/22/can-jet-blast-remove-a-bikini-top/

Subject Safety

Subject Group
Ground operations and handling

Website Category
Ground handling security research topics. See all Research Topics on this subject by clicking on the link in the right-hand column in our front page.

Research Guidelines
This is a whimsical topic designed to emphasise the dangers of jet blast.

WE EMPHASISE – This is a theoretical topic!!!!!!!!!!!
It is recommended that this is not done as a live exercise as you will endanger and may injure or kill the unfortunate female!

Can jet blast blow off a girl’s bikini top? Consider the following questions:

  1. What is the pressure generated by a jet aircraft?
  2. How far behind the aircraft does the blast extend?
  3. How does the pressure vary with the different phases of flight; idling on the ramp, taxying and take-off?
  4. How is the blast affected by the size and type of aircraft?
  5. Does the angle of the girl’s body relative to the blast affect the outcome?
  6. Following on from Question 5, if someone were to lie flat on the ground in jet blast would he/she be blown away?
  7. Present the research findings in graphical format.
  8. Do the same experiments taking the heat generated by the exhaust into account.

Research data
Students, with permission, may be able to place instruments at an airport.  Place your instruments exactly where instructed – you don’t want them to become FOD and endanger an aircraft and its passengers.

Do not attempt to place instruments in the airport property without permission as you may be arrested and spend some time in prison!

Airport Security is a serious matter and airports will not view any trespass as joke or prank!

Jet blast data may be obtained from the engine manufacturer and/or from the controlling bodies; ICAO, IATA, or your local Civil Aviation authority

OR

Using the engine specifications, calculate the jet blast at varying distances behind the engine.

If you have access to a suitable wind tunnel, you can test your calculations.

Learning Objectives
To expose students to actual dangers in airside operations and to develop their situational awareness with regard to jet blast.

Pedagogical Objectives
The lecturer material is organised around a set of exploratory questions that bring out each of the potential failures in the topic.

Target audience    Anyone with an operational or academic interest in safety in Air Transport

Work time        Depends on the depth to which the research is done.

Level    Industry staff or, academically, when airside security appears in the study curriculum

Prior knowledge    Some knowledge of ramp processes

Aim    To illustrate the importance of ramp safety

Length            Not applicable

Published by        Air Transport Research Institute. 22 November 2019

The Air Transport Research Institute does not accept any responsibility for any actions stupid researchers may do in the course of their research!! 

YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED!

Data source        Open sources

Similar research problems     41

Publication    Present your research findings in the format prescribed by your institution, if you are connected with an institution or else in the format prescribed by the relevant journals.

Consider publishing your work on our Website in addition to any other publication you may chose.  We must warn you that publishing in a recognised journal will earn you more kudos than publishing in this site.

Be aware that publishing your research on this website becomes open source and anyone can access it and they may not give you credit.

 

PAPER AIRCRAFT DESIGN FOR FLIGHT TIME

Experiment # 27

Topic Aerodynamics

Subject Aircraft design

Ancillary Subject None

Website Menu Activities-Games/Experiments

Experiment

Make paper aeroplanes of various designs and see design which flies the furthest.

Learning Objectives

To expose students to actual aircraft control surfaces and to develop their knowledge of airliner design and an airliners’ relative fragility.

Pedagogical Objectives

Fun learning

Target audience    Anyone with an operational or academic interest in Air Transport

Work time        As long as you like

Level     Industry staff or, academically, when aviation appears in the study curriculum

Difficulty        Fun

Prior knowledge    Some knowledge of aviation

Aim     To illustrate the aerodynamics of airliner design

Published by        Air Transport Research Institute. 12 November 2019

Data source        Open sources

Similar experiments    28

 

WHEN DID THE FIRST COMMERCIAL AIR SERVICE START AND END?

Research Topics# 15

Topic Commercial aviation

Subject Airliner design

Ancillary Subjects Quality management, airline economics

Website  Menu  Research / Research resources & support / Research questions

Research Questions

The first commercial jet air service took place a long time ago.

  1. Between which two cities did the aircraft fly?
  2. When did it take place?
  3. What aircraft was used?
  4. For how long did the service continue and why was it discontinued?
  5. What was learnt from this air service?
  6. What improvements to design and quality management can you suggest?

Learning Objectives

To expose students to actual operational problems in airline operations and to develop their knowledge of airliner design and an airliners’ relative fragility.

Pedagogical Objectives

The lecturer material is organised around a set of exploratory questions that bring out each of the potential failures in the topic.

Target audience    Anyone with an operational or academic interest in Air Transport

Work time        2 hours

Level     Industry staff or, academically, when Commercial aviation appears in the study curriculum

Difficulty        Moderate

Prior knowledge    Some knowledge of commercial aviation – possibly as a passenger.

Aim     To illustrate the importance of correct airliner design

Published by        Air Transport Research Institute. 6 November 2019

Data source        Open sources

Similar research problems     1, 4, 12

HOW THE FIRST COMMERCIAL JET SERVICE INFLUENCED AIRLINE DESIGN

Research Topics# 28

Topic Air transport economics

Subject Airliner design

Ancillary Subject Aircraft design

Website Menu  Research / Research resources & support / Research questions

Research Questions

The first commercial jet air service took place a long time ago.

  1. Between which two cities did the aircraft fly?
  2. When did it take place?
  3. What aircraft was used?
  4. For how long did the service continue and why was it discontinued?
  5. What was learnt from this air service?
  6. What improvements to design took place after the introduction of the service?

Learning Objectives

To expose students to actual operational problems in airline operations and to develop their knowledge of airliner design and an airliners’ relative fragility.

Pedagogical Objectives

The lecturer material is organised around a set of exploratory questions that bring out each of the potential failures in the topic.

Target audience    Anyone with an operational or academic interest in Air Transport

Work time        3 hours

Level     Industry staff or, academically, when Commercial aviation appears in the study curriculum

Difficulty        Moderate

Prior knowledge    Some knowledge of commercial aviation

Aim     To illustrate the importance of correct structural and economic airliner design

Published by        Air Transport Research Institute. 6 November 2019

Data source        Open sources

Similar research problems     22, 54

MANAGEMENT TRAINING

Alastair Gordon shares his secrets.

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. How do you define a Manager?
  3. Management styles.
  4. Functions of a Manager
  • Introduction

 

There are literally hundreds of books, Seminars, Lectures, Courses, theories and ideas about Managers.

Many highly qualified people have conducted studies is a wide variety of industries for many years. These studies have revealed many issues, concerning all aspects of Management. Issues such as control functions, communication, planning, management styles, subordinates’ reactions and needs, motivation etc. There are different ideas and thoughts on the best way to manage. Some are very useful, others outdated and yet others limited to certain industries only.

The common issues are:

  1. Management is not an exact science
  2. Management styles need to vary according to the situation and staff.
  3. Managers have a wide range of tasks to perform.

In this course, reference is made to some studies, other information is obtained from first hand experience and observations made of a number of companies.

There are so many different types of Managers and Management styles. One definition of Manager is that he or she is responsible to achieve certain objectives, in the best interests of his Employer, using resources allocated to him or her.

In a sense, all of us are managers to a greater or lesser degree. We manage our own lives, our budgets, our houses, our kids, if we have any, our wives and girlfriends and so on.

A number of surveys were carried out at different times and in various industries. Employees were asked how they felt about managers and how they saw them. The results were very interesting.

  1. The Boss, often a mean person.
  2. A Slave driver.
  3. The person in charge of you who is often unreasonable.
  4. A person one can respect.
  5. A good leader.
  6. A bad leader.
  7. The person who makes you work and gets more money than you, for doing less work.
  8. The person in charge who is running the department.
  9. Some family member of one of the big bosses.

  10. A person who doesn’t know how to treat his workers.

  11. A puppet operated by senior management.

  12. Someone who you can talk to and who listens.

  13. A clown who seems to be in the position just to make your life a misery.

  14. The one person in the Department who is out to take disciplinary action against anyone who doesn’t “toe the line”.

  15. Someone who can lead you and the section in the best possible way.

  16. Makes promises to keep us quiet and doesn’t keep them.

These were just some of the responses, other were also positive and yet others very negative.

2) How do you define a Manager?

A Manager is a person who has been put in charge of a section or department and is responsible to ensure the smooth, efficient and cost-effective operation of that section or department. (That is the short version!)

The manager has been put in charge and he is responsible for a number of things, such as:

3) Management styles.

There are a number of management styles, which can be applied. As mentioned, Management is not an exact science; so, a good manager may apply different management styles on his staff, depending on the situation and the people he is dealing with.

  1. Autocratic style
  2. Democratic style
  3. Participative style

4) Functions of a Manager

A manager has a number of functions. These are listed below. We will expand on and clarify each function individually.

  1. Planning.
  2. Organizing.
  3. Direction.
  4. Control.
  5. Delegation.
  6. Staffing.
  7. Communication.
  8. Representation.
  9. Innovation.
  10. Decision-making.

Only 10 jobs? That’s easy enough!

Let us start, by defining what a Manager, or Supervisor is.

Any ideas?

There are a few definitions of a Manager, some good, some bad. One definition is “The Manager is the person who gets work done by others”

This is a fair description, but entails a lot more than just that.

As a Manager/Supervisor, you are expected to manage your Section/Department Costeffectively and productively.

How do you achieve this?

A Manager’s tasks include:

  1. Planning
  2. Controlling
  3. Leading
  4. Communicating
  5. Training
  6. Delegation & Empowerment.

Planning:

What do you have to plan?

  1. Your workload
  2. Your staff requirements
  3. Budgets.

Controlling:

What do you have to control?

  1. Staff
  2. Budgets
  3. Resources.

Leading

What Leading to you have to do?

Lead your staff.

Communicating:

Communication is vital for a manager; Communicating via the various means one has to communicate:

  1. Downwards to subordinates to ensure that they know what is required of them.
  2. Sideways, to fellow Managers to ensure that they are kept abreast of things, which will affect their sections.
  3. Upwards to Senior Management to ensure that they are fully aware of what is happening in your Section/Department.

Training:

It is the responsibility of the Manager to ensure that each staff member in his/her Department/section receives the necessary training to enable them to function efficiently as well as to develop the staff members.

One train of thought is that a Manager should actually work him/herself out of a job! This would by training the staff to the point where they can function efficiently with minimum supervision.

Training can be done in a few ways:

  1. Formal Training carried out by Training Department of colleges etc.
  2. Informal Training.
  3. “On the Job” practical training.

Delegation & Empowerment:

This is a very important aspect of being a good Manager. A Manager has to delegate duties to his subordinates. This is an area where many companies have problems.

There is a difference between being Responsible and Accountable for things. Workers are responsible for the actual work they do, i.e., to carry out their duties correctly and to the best of their abilities. Likewise, the Manager is responsible to ensure that his/her staff are working efficiently and cost effectively. The Manager is also, however, Accountable for the proper running of his/her Department and various aspects such as ensuring safety requirements are met, Budgets are adhered to etc.

The Manager must therefore be aware of these things when delegating work to staff; one can delegate responsibilities a certain level of authority, but not always Accountabilities.

In many instances Managers are not confident enough in themselves, or their staff to delegate any form of authority or decision making, to staff, preferring to do it all on their own. This can work, provided you are an expert in the field and are working with a crew of ignorant staff members! It will also keep you very busy, running around checking up on everyone’s work!

Get to know your staff, what their capabilities are, how far you can trust or rely on them. Empower them where you can, treat staff with dignity and respect and you will get the most out of your staff.

Motivation:

Motivation is something, which many “Clever” people argue about.

Questions, which are argued about, include:

  1. “Can you motivate someone?” – Yes
  2. “Is a person who does nothing, unmotivated?” – Maybe.
  3. “Is Money a good motivator?” – Yes, but not the best.

What are the answers?

Just this:

A sense of accomplishment and recognition for doing a good job are the best motivators.

“We had a lot of problems but we really worked hard to the departure out on time and afterwards, the boss came and called us together and read out the email from the airline thanking us for our hard work. I told the family when I got home and they all hugged me.”

A Question that is often debated is “Can anybody be a Manager?”

The short answer is YES. In fact, if you think about it, most, if not all of us are Managers already! We manage our own lives. Plan, control and manage our Budgets, Plan for the future etc. etc.

There are a number of different Management styles, which are used in various circumstances or situations.

These include:

  1. Autocratic or Dictatorial
  2. Participative
  3. “Democratic”
  4. “Hands on”

Top 10 “Time Wasters”

Procrastination & Excuses

Don’t put things off. They say, “Procrastination is the Thief of Time” very true. It’s easy to make excuses as to why things haven’t been done, but that is all they are “excuses”, not reasons.

Running Errands & Commuting

Plan tasks properly to minimize running unnecessary errands and unnecessary travelling.

Rushing

Again, plan properly and manage your time so that it is not necessary to rush around trying to get things done. This is when one forgets to do things, or you don’t do them properly.

Computers, Gadgets & the Internet

These are all designed to make life easier and more efficient, allowing a company to work smarter and more effectively. Remember, the computer must work for you; systems must work for you, not you working for the system. The Internet is an incredible source of information. How many people utilise it correctly and fully? How many of us “abuse” the internet facilities by visiting “non-work” related sites and how long do we spend on these sites?

Telephone, E-mail & Mail

Wonderful communication tools! Do we use them wisely and correctly? “Just a quick call to the wife to say Hi” or I feel like a chat with my buddy, or I must arrange for a family get together. A number of companies don’t mind too much if the occasional personal call is made, within reason, but analyses of Phone bills reveals a large percentage of calls made are a) Personal and b). They take up a lot of time, time which should have been used for company business.

Meetings

A personal favourite of mine!

Questions:

  1. Do we need to have as many meetings as we have?
  2. Are the meetings structured?
  3. Do they take longer than is necessary?
  4. Do they add value to the company?
  5. How many meaningful decisions are made at meetings?
  6. Are the right people attending these meetings?

Paperwork, Reports & Memos

Review the paperwork that your company is doing. Is all of it necessary? There are certain legal requirements regarding paperwork, but how much of it can we do without? Reports and memos… What reports are required and by whom? Ensure that anyone who requires a report/s gets what he or she needs, nothing more and nothing less. Even if reports are computer generated, they take time to compile and read. The same applies to memos.

Planning & Decision Making

These aspects are very important in any company’s operations and should be done diligently and accurately in order for a company to prosper. Planning and decision-making can be time consuming. How do you save time with these activities? Simple, involve the right people and set deadlines and goals and adhere to them. Use Effective decision-making models and experience.

Entertainment, Television & Radio

These forms of media are not often used in the workplace, but more in one’s personal life. These can also be a source of time wasting. How many of us sit and watch TV. just because it’s on and not because the programme content is interesting? There is nothing wrong in watching TV. and enjoying some entertainment, but do we enjoy everything we watch? Or could we be doing something more constructive?

Just Say Yes

Don’t bite off more than you can chew. Think about the consequences of delivering less than expected and missing deadlines. Be honest with people (and yourself) and they will respect you for it. Do NOT accept things that can’t fit into your schedule. At the end of the day, you will have wasted more time trying to do too much in not enough time. When you don’t have the time, or can’t fit something into your schedule simply say “NO”. Prioritise your work according to importance and do it accordingly.

PARTS OF AN AIRPORT CROSSWORD

Image courtesy of Airports Company of South Africa


Across

  1. Part of the airport where aircraft engines can be run to full power for testing purposes. The run-up bay is usually surrounded by earth berms or other noise barricades so as not to create noise pollution.
  2. Area in terminal where passengers wait for their flight to be boarded.  Generally have an adjacent food court and  “duty free” shops.
  3. Area in terminal where passengers get baggage weighed and acccepted for a flight and where passengers report for thei flight.
  4. The part of the ramp in which aircraft part. One for each aircraft.
  5. Area in terminal where passengers travel documents are checked before they are allowed into a country.
  6. Part of an airport where aircraft are parked after Arrival and before Departure. Ground handling operations and refueling take place here.
  7. Part of airport to which the public has access.
  8. The large conveyor belt onto which the baggage centre loads arriving passengers luggagewhich goes to the baggage arrivals hall where the passengers wait for their bags to come round on the belt.
  9. Place where fire fighting and other rescue equipment is kept in case of emergency.
  10. The staff, often from the treasury or revenue department of the government which collect duty on imcoming or departing passengers according to the requirement of the law.
  11. Where all the passengers and meets and greeters leave their cars
  12. Large flying machine in which people are transported from one point to another.
  13. Place where GSE is kept ready for use.
  14. A sort of tunnel between the terminal and an aircraft. Movable so that they can accomodate different types of aircraft.
  15. Staff who check that passengers are carrying dangerous goods or weapons.

 

Down

  1. Place in terminal where passengers recieve their luggage after a flight.
  2. Long road-like structre which aircraft use to take-off and land
  3. Area in terminal where passengers, meeter and greeters and, in landside, visitors can obtain a meal or drinks.
  4. Place where GSE is maintained, repaired or overhauled.
  5. Large vehicle used to transport passengers between terminals and aircraft.
  6. Where all the aircraft are parked.
  7. The people who direct aircraft in the airspace around an airport and on the ground.
  8. Process when departing passengers move from the boarding area onto their aircraft. Boarding passes are check at this point.  Passengers may board through an airbridge or take a bus to the aircraft.
  9. Part of an airport which is used for airport operations as opposed to the public areas of an airport.
  10. Large building where passengers, meeters and greeters, visitors and arport staff are found. Customs and Security are found here.
  11. The place where passengers baggage is sorted, either for loading onto aircraft or to load on the baggage carousel so that the passengers can take them and go on to their destinations.
  12. Tall building near the centre of an airport in which Air Traffic Control is based.
  13. The fence around the airport which is used to prevent access to the airport by people and animals.
  14. A large warehouse or warehouses where cargo for transport to other airports or received from other airports for onward transport to local customers.
  15. Part of an airport where the aircraft magnetic compasses are set.
  16. Shops airside in an airport where “duty free” items may be bought. Duty-free goods are exempt from the payment of certain local or national taxes and duties, on the requirement that the goods sold will be sold to travelers who will take them out of the country.

 

AIRLINE FOOD MANUFACTURE AND HANDLING

Image courtesy of Alastair Gordon

Some points to consider before you start

  1. Airline food is supposed to look palatable, to have at 2 least colours on the plate and not poison passengers.
    
  2. The meals must look as identical as possible because passengers compare their meals to their neighbours on the aircraft.
    
  3. The longer the flight, the more likely are the passengers to notice poor quality food.
    
  4. Airline food is chosen for its reconstituting and reheating properties.
    
  5. The recipes are so designed that the worst that the cabin crew can do with them is burn or drop a meal.
    
  6. Airline food is loaded with preservatives, fat and salt; the last two to improve the taste at 30000 feet where the human body loses its tasting ability.
  7. Food is also served to help prevent passengers over-indulging in alcohol and causing a nuisance on board.
  8. The Airline Catering Association represents 64% of the inflight catering market in the world who employee 130,000 employees, have a turnover of 9.9 Bn Euros per annum and produce 4.7 million meals per day.
  9. As one of the world’s leading inflight caterers, dnata serves more than 110 airline customers across the globe, producing over 110 million meals annually. [Ground Support World Wide 26/9/19.]
  10. Food is served on short regional flights, necessary?
  11. EKFC directly employs over 11,000 staff, and operates from Emirates Flight Catering Centre which has a capacity of producing over 225,000 meals daily. The Company provided 55 million meals in 2017, with an average daily meal uplift of 180,000.
  12. Qantas catering kitchens produce over 6,240,000 meals per annum.
  13. Meals are made according to menu cycles; every so often, the menus are changed so that regular travellers do not eat the same meal every time they fly. This requires first-class purchasing and stock control.

Process

Few airlines do their own catering. Most contract the food manufacturing out to specialised caterers around the world. The caterers are really factories with hundreds of workers on assembly lines producing millions of meals each day.

After all the food is fully cooked, it is then blast-chilled to the required 4 degrees Celsius in special refrigerators while it waits to be delivered to the aircraft.

Caterers must deliver the meals just-in-time for a plane’s departure. For example, at Emirates Flight Catering (EKFC) at Dubai the catering trollies are transported along a 2.5 km long network by means of an electric monorail system. As they travel through the facility, they are unloaded, cleaned, and individually filled. The automatic system services up to 40 catering carts per aircraft for departure. [Wikipedia] Just-in-time means just that. Catering trollies must not wait on the apron to be loaded; they must be loaded as soon as they arrive so that the food does not spoil.

Before departure; the airlines orders are pulled from the refrigerators, thawed, and loaded in containers together with all the other items needed for passengers to eat the meal – cutlery, serviettes, glasses and so on.

Many catering companies produce meals for more than one airline which may each have their own menus, food types; religious, national, cultural, health and baby and child, crockery, and tray styles. A large widebody may need more than 40,000 individual items for an international flight. Multiply that by hundreds or maybe, thousands, of flights each day. The process requires sophisticated production management.

Costs

The quality of the food ingredients is sometimes not of the best but the main problem is the staff who work for the caterers. They are often badly paid; in fact, while we were researching this article, we found 3 reports, in a short period, of catering workers striking for higher pay. Workers claimed that they could not afford to pay for medical aid, which is made worse if there is no or an inefficient national health service. Low staff morale is not conducive to Productivity.

Health and Safety Risks

  1. Shift work is necessary but terrible as anyone who has worked shifts will tell you. Shifts are also not healthy as they really mess with your circadian rhythms and your family life and are generally bad for workers health which means time off of work and the related costs to the caterers and thence to the airline and ultimately to the cost of your ticket.
  2. Sick workers can spread infection.

Health and Safety Risks Countermeasures

  1. Improved shift planning so that workers get time to become used to shift changes.
  2. Sleeping areas for those workers who might have to travel a long way to and from work.
  3. Discourage the “Hero” mentality and give generous sick time off.
  4. Check the health of workers when they come on shift. This may be expensive but it is worth it in higher productivity and safety.

Financial Risks

Any work connected with food has a theft problem. This adds to the cost of the meal to the airline and, ultimately, to your ticket.

Financial Risks Countermeasures

  1. Regular audits conducted by internal audit staff and external auditors.
  2. Document each food ingredient and finished product by recording ingredient received, stored, prepared, cooked, frozen, stored, and dispatched to aircraft; when, by whom and how each of the process steps was performed. If inspection is required then this must also be entered in the production record or job card. If a problem occurs, it’s easy to determine where in the process the failure might have occurred.  This also refers to non-food items such as plates, serviettes and cutlery.

FOOD SAFETY

Supply Chain Risks

Catering Companies

They are reliant on suppliers providing safe raw materials.

Airlines

Airlines rely on local catering companies often in a foreign country with different standards of food safety. You may think that this applies only to “undeveloped 3rd world countries. Not so, for example the European Union is very strict about airlines food, even from the United States, for example.

Supply Chain Countermeasures

Safety, quality and environment rules, drawn from experience, have been codified and should be followed. For example;

IFSA’s (International Flight Services Association) guidelines are intended for suppliers, caterers and airlines, in short, from raw material production to passenger service and include:

  1. Risk assessment.
  2. Food safety programs.
  3. Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points systems.
  4. Regular audits by both internal and external auditors.

Examples of the application of the rules may be found below under each heading.

Catering companies

Catering companies must be very careful about security and food safety. For example, chicken is fully cooked to a minimum core temperature of 74 degrees Celsius and held for 15 seconds and steak is usually seared to a safe temperature by airline caterers unless the airline requests it be left partially uncooked and agrees to sign a waiver.

The food is packed in insulated containers and trucked to airports to be loaded onto the aircraft. The food must be kept cool and loaded onto the aircraft as soon as possible, The in-flight food trollies are usually loaded with dry ice to keep their contents cool throughout the flight.

Safety Risks

  1. Food safety problems can occur in hot countries because it is more difficult to keep the meals cool.
  2. The caterer’s kitchen location is sometimes a risk; it cannot be far from the airport; however, airports are generally in industrial areas which increases the potential risk of pests and vermin infestation.

Safety Risks Countermeasures

  1. Regular audits conducted by quality assurance staff and external auditors.
  2. Ensure strict temperature control along the supply chain which includes: receiving at the caterer, storing, cooking, chilling, assembly, and dispatch to aircraft.
  3. Document each food ingredient and finished product by recording ingredient received, stored, prepared, cooked, frozen, stored, and dispatched to aircraft; when, by whom and how each of the process steps was performed. If inspection is required then this must also be entered in the production record or job card. If a problem occurs, it’s easy to determine where in the process the failure might have occurred.  This also refers to non-food items such as plates, serviettes and cutlery.
  4. Statistical samples of raw materials and finished food should be drawn and tested in the facilities laboratory. In the event of a sample failing the safety and quality tests the entire batch must be withdrawn and scrapped.
  5. Pest control measures.
  6. Strict hygiene procedures must be followed at all times. Staff should wash hands before handling food and wear safety clothes at all times; hats, gloves, jackets and possibly, facemasks. No, makeup, jewellery or open sores in the kitchens.

Financial Risks

Of course, any work connected with food has a theft problem. This adds to the cost of the meal to the airline and, ultimately, to your ticket.

Financial Risks Countermeasures

  1. Regular audits conducted by internal audit staff and external auditors.
  2. Document each food ingredient and finished product by recording ingredient received, stored, prepared, cooked, frozen, stored, and dispatched to aircraft; when, by whom and how each of the process steps was performed. If inspection is required then this must also be entered in the production record or job card. If a stock shortage occurs, it’s easy to determine where in the process the theft might have occurred.  This also refers to non-food items such as plates, serviettes and cutlery.

At the Airport

Departure

Getting the correct meals to the correct flight at the right time requires detailed planning and logistics. Not to mention quick reaction times when problems occur. And you know very well what problems can occur on the apron; late arrivals and departures, congestion, GSE breakdowns, and bad weather, to mention a few.

Airport Risks

  1. Food can sometimes be left in the open on the ramp if loading is delayed.

Airport Risks Countermeasures

Airline representatives should be vigilant and take appropriate action.

Arrival

After arrival the catering equipment and waste must be offloaded, sorted, washed, and recombined into new meal sets. Uneaten food must be disposed of, mainly by incineration. Sometimes, the uneaten food is composted and used to recover Methane gas which can be used in power-generation, for example. Gatwick airport has a waste-to-energy plant, reducing the need for trucks to transport waste to disposal sites.

Arrival Environmental Risks

Bad food waste disposal procedures.

Arrival Environmental Risks Countermeasures

Disposal of uneaten food depends on the laws of the Arrival country. For example, EU health legislation requires that all catering waste arriving from outside EU borders is treated as high-risk and incinerated or buried in deep landfill. Donating uneaten food to charity is illegal in Europe. Sometimes, in other countries, on domestic flights some food like unopened biscuits may be donated to charities.

On the aircraft

The crew is supposed to eat different meals from the passengers and the captain and first officer eat different meals in case one of them becomes ill.

Ensuring food safety without losing the integrity of the meal itself for passengers to enjoy onboard is not easy.

Once on board, the food is heated for about 20 minutes in the aircraft’s convection oven in which a fan blows hot air onto the food – open flames and microwaves aren’t allowed on aircraft. Induction ovens are available enabling food to be cooked more quickly at lower temperatures.

Aircraft Safety Risks

the risk of bacterial contamination may increase because of the lag time between when the food is prepared by the caterer and when it’s served to passengers which is potentially a problem, for example, with long intercontinental flights. Some foods, of course, are more prone to encourage bacterial contamination than others. Food stored on the aircraft at the wrong temperature is the most important cause of food-borne illness on aircraft.

Aircraft Financial Risks

A food safety incident can adversely affect ticket sales.

Safety Risks Countermeasures

  1. Loaded meals must be stored in the aircraft in accordance with strict safety standards such as the correct storage temperature.
  2. Cabin crew must follow hygiene regulations at all times.

FOOD SECURITY

At the caterer

Security Risks

  1. Food in preparation may be interfered with by malicious parties and food contaminated with bacteria, poison (including allergens,) dead insects, or foreign objects such as bits of glass.
  2. Contraband may be secreted in food trollies at the caterer.

Security Risks Countermeasures

  1. Physical security.
  2. Access control.
  3. Food inspection.
  4. Food trolley inspection.
  5. Random inspections.
  6. Security personnel in any kitchen where meals are prepared or plated.
  7. Subcontractors should be certified and audited for security and safety procedures.
  8. The caterer should not use temporary labour.
  9. Internal and External audit.

Caterer to Airport

After food is loaded onto trucks, the trucks should be sealed and the sealing documentation handed to and signed for by the driver.

Security Risks

  1. Food in transit may be interfered with by malicious parties and food contaminated with bacteria or poison (including allergens,) dead insects, or foreign objects such as bits of glass.
  2. Contraband may be secreted in food trollies in transit.

Security Risks Countermeasures

  1. Verification of Truck Seal on Arrival at airport
    1. Verify and break the seal on the catering vehicle.
    2. Verify the truck seal against the documentation.
    3. Retention of truck seal forms for audit purposes.

At the Airport

Security Risks

  1. Food in the holding area may be interfered with by malicious parties and food contaminated with bacteria or poison, (including allergens,) dead insects or foreign objects such as bits of glass.
  2. Contraband may be secreted in food trollies in the holding area.

Security Risks Countermeasures

Before departure

  1. Food trollies should be kept in a restricted access holding area until delivery to aircraft.
  2. Physical security.

On Arrival

Cabin crews must secure food trolleys with cable ties at the end of a flight to indicate that the trolley has not been tampered with when it leaves the plane on its way to disposal.

For more on this subject:

  1. Aviation Food Safety, Erica Sheward, IFST AGM November 2015 presentation.
  2. International Flight Services Association. World Food Safety Guidelines for airline catering.
  3. The IATA’s Cabin Operations Safety Best Practices Guide includes a long section on food safety.
  4. Air Babylon, Imogen Edwards-Jones and Anonymous, Bantam Press, ISBNs 053 594 563 and 053 594 571. ATRI Library #: 1233, 1234, 1235.
  5. The Flying Book. Davis Blatner. Allen Lane-The Penguin Press, ISBN 0 713 99513 0. ATRI Library #: 313.